This first post of 2021! After the January dredges and figuring out a schedule, it appears I’ve struck my version of “gold” in game design methodologies: when real world practices meet good game design philosophy. In this case, it’s about task management (or productivity) and learning how to teach players about your game mechanics.

Let’s get started!

The Eisenhower Matrix

Dwight D. Eisenhower was a president of the United States mainly known for his military contribution during World War II leading the Battle of Normandy (in France) pre-presidency, and also the interstate highway system of the US in case of foreign bombing, post-presidency. To productivity nerds everywhere, his system for identifying which tasks to work on and when has outlived his term and even his accomplishments.

The Eisenhower Matrix: Urgent vs. Important - Next Level Gents

Chart Breakdown

The Eisenhower matrix has two main axis: Urgent and Important.

“Who can define for us with accuracy the difference between the long and short term! Especially whenever our affairs seem to be in crisis, we are almost compelled to give our first attention to the urgent present rather than to the important future.”

– Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961 address to the Century Association (2)

The most take-aways from this chart (and its reading below) for games are simple.

Urgent tasks are tasks are bound by TIME. Important tasks are bound by GRAVITY. An example of an Urgent task is brewing coffee in the morning. You need it to wake up. But if your roommate comes out of their room, deathly ill, halfway through the brewing, you’ll stop what you’re doing and take him to the hospital. Because the GRAVITY and IMMEDIACY of that situation switched your priorities.

This is what the Eisenhower Matrix identifies: what is urgent and what is important is never the same.

For games, we can use this to answer the all important question of development:

The Game Tutorial Matrix

How do we know what to teach players? And when?

Every game design director & designer I’ve ever worked with, including (and mainly) myself

I’ve made hundreds, maybe thousands, of tutorials in my life. I practically did my Masters honors thesis on the “invisible tutorial” (popularized by Mark Brown) without realizing it all because I had a central design philosophy form where my decisions made sense: my own tutorial “matrix.”

Instead of task management, I looked at this matrix and popular game titles and create my own matrix.

Lauryn Ash’s Game Tutorial Matrix

Let’s break this down.

These two main “axis” represent the same Urgent & important and correlate roughly to Eisenhower’s two: [a] Time (when do they need to know it); and [b] Impact (how important is it to the game’s experience).

  • Urgent & Important – Do it! – These tutorials and sequences should immediately require players to do the action or button press needed. Popular in “run-outs,” not a QTE.
  • Not Urgent & Important – Show it! – Players don’t understand why it’s important yet, but need to know for later in the game.
  • Urgent & Not Important – Reinforce it! – Players could overcome a challenge without it, but it’s a feature/mechanic that makes thing easier overall. Highlights optional mechanics.
  • Not Important & Not Urgent – Cut it! – First ask, do you really need this tutorial? Would the community online better teach players? Supporting systems, mechanics, outside core gameplay. Exceptions, some menu tutorials.

Answering What Tutorial Type Works Best?

So how do we use this in games going forward? As designers, rules are always changing as we develop better techniques for teaching players and as players themselves bring their own expectations into a game.

Full-screen tutorials that pause the game with large blocks of text may or may not be ignored depending on the situation they’re in. Largely, games that have problems with “unhelpful tutorials” or “I never read them” put those tutorials in the wrong Urgent/Important category!

Let’s look at some examples!

Game Examples

All game examples are for illustrative purposes only. I have no inside connections to these studios. All opinions are my own and not reflective of any corporate entity, past or present, that has employed me.

Urgent/Important: Do it

Games use on-screen prompts and buttons for scenarios where players need to immediately use the knowledge even if they don’t know it yet.

Image result for god of war 4 main menu
main menu tutorial in God of War was a brilliant use case of Do it!
Tomb Raider, 2013 shows prompts on interacts “teaches” players to always use that button
Image result for detroit become human gameplay
With generous time pressure (or none at all) and an on-screen indicator of a “good outcome” this shows players what to expect from every encounter.

Not Urgent/Important: Show it

Just like above, games “show it” by using the environment to show certain ways of using mechanics or directly showing players how to do those actions in a “safe” space.

Half Life 2 “Ravenholm” Mission, yes is over-quoted but it’s the OBVIOUS use case for important but not urgent
Image result for spiderman skill tutorial
Insomniac’s Spider-Man tutorial is an off-key example of “showing” the player what Impact a game-changing skill or mechanic has. It’s important for you to know, but it’s not urgent.
I struggled with this one, because you don’t know “why” it’s important yet but you HAVE TO USE THESE skills to beat this Modder’s Prequel to Portal.

Urgent/ Not Important: Reinforce it

Games use dialogue, objective indicators, journals, HUD/UI, and even on-screen reminders that pop up to make sure you always have the information you need.

Image result for assassins creed gameplay
AC: Valhalla subtitle dialogue (and audio) cues with on-screen objective indicators (diamonds) show you what you need to do to complete this section of the game: HOW you can achieve a goal (abilities/health) and WHAT (the dialogue/objective in the left) you need to do.
Image result for games on screen hints
Often times, games utilize the loading screen to reinforce mechanics/skills players may have forgotten
Image result for games on screen hints
In CS:GO it’s called the “game instructor” like a teacher, and in more games, players can turn these off. This type of feature means players enter an “agreement” that they know what they need and no longer need that information to be “reinforced.”

Not Urgent/Not Important: Cut it

Sometimes, you just have to explain something in a paragraph. Menus, NPCs vendors, or whatever need explanation: but I want you to think outside the box these examples show. Let’s be honest: these are the tutorials you skip right?

Persona 5 Part #15 - Side Note: Some Useful Information
I love me Persona 5, and actually also love Atlus’ choice to use these. Do you think players rather they were cut?
Replaying tutorials in Assassin's Creed Valhalla - Ubisoft Support
Assassin’s Creed Valhalla lets you replay and see all tutorial text again. WIth compendiums like this, what should / should we not put into an actual “tutorial” sequence?

Teaching Players is Tricky: So yes, expect the “exceptions” to turn up.

I can’t possibly go into every game (at least not in one article!). Not every game needs a big tutorial sequence, in fact most don’t. Not every game should have in-character dialogue explaining the way mechanics work as “real.”

But all games need someone, whoever that is, to teach players what they need to do — so they can play and enjoy the game experience.

In Conclusion

Players–and really people–don’t like being told what to do. They want to be shown it. In cases like Half Life 2 (single player), it’s easy to see how a lack of “tutorials with text” but an emphasis on “tutorials through environment” can make people feel this game never teaches them anything–when in fact, it’s constantly teaching them.

Other games, like Persona 5 and now World of Warcraft (shadowlands) have specific tutorial sequences, quest objectives, and in-game dialogue that guide players through the content they need to complete because the game systems are “complex”–or at least so much as wanting you, the player, to not have to leave the game world to figure them out.

But could we have done it differently?

Discussion Questions: In the two ending exmaples, how could we have used the above to present a better system? Do some games always need wordy tutorials? Are we OK with them in some genres but not others? Especially in popular role-based PVP games such as Overwatch and Fornite, is it even worth explaining our systems? Or leaving it in the hands of our players?

I’d love to hear your thoughts. So comment on my posts on Instagram, shout at me on twitter, or leave a comment here! Happy game deving!

Students: Cite this article!

MLA Style:
“Tutorial of Tutorials: How to Design Tutorials Using The Eisenhower Matrix.” Lauryn Ash, 28 Feb. 2021, laurynash.com.

Image References

https://nextlevelgents.com/eisenhower-matrix/

https://todoist.com/productivity-methods/eisenhower-matrix

God of War Image, https://www.gamespace.com/all-articles/news/where-next-for-the-god-of-war-franchise/

Tomb Raider, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGzWbwsZURc&ab_channel=MystaGaming

Half Life 2, https://www.gameskinny.com/hithw/the-top-5-video-game-level-designs

Portal Mod, https://www.moddb.com/mods/portal-prelude/images/portal-prelude-screenshots6#imagebox

AC: Valhalla, https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.windowscentral.com%2Fassassins-creed-valhalla-review&psig=AOvVaw22BPwW8PJwKdycmmstmZgx&ust=1614037026190000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CA0QjhxqFwoTCICRidKS_O4CFQAAAAAdAAAAABAD

Empire Total War: https://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/65382/what-to-show-while-a-game-is-loading

CS:GO https://gaming.stackexchange.com/questions/184651/disable-pop-up-hints

Detroit: Become Human, https://www.digitaltrends.com/game-reviews/detroit-become-human-review/

Persona 5, https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Flparchive.org%2FPersona-5%2FUpdate%252015%2F&psig=AOvVaw2TDiH5dAUpyw6gqx2LfGKe&ust=1614187266658000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAIQjRxqFwoTCKD1yKjCgO8CFQAAAAAdAAAAABAJ

AC Valhalla again, https://support.ubisoft.com/en-US/Article/000080347

Lauryn Ash

Game Designer & Writer

About the Author

A full-time game developer and writer living in the San Francisco Bay Area. I analyze the world through video games and coffee. Sharing my experience in game design, coffee, and writing. All opinions are my own. Patreon coming soon!!

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